Golang的Web框架Gin使用总结

一、使用BasicAuth中间件限制指定接口

router := gin.Default()

authorizedRoute = router.Group("/", gin.BasicAuth(gin.Accounts{
  "admin": "123456", //用户名:密码
  "root": "aaaaaaa",
}))

// Group函数注册了一个群组路由,gin.BasicAuth是中间件,参数gin.Accounts是一个map[string]string类型的映射,用来记录用户名和密码。

authorizedRoute.StaticFile("/favicon.ico", "./public/favicon.ico")

authorizedRoute.GET("/secrets", func(c *gin.Context) {
        // get user, it was set by the BasicAuth middleware
        user := c.MustGet(gin.AuthUserKey).(string)
        if secret, ok := secrets[user]; ok {
            c.JSON(http.StatusOK, gin.H{"user": user, "secret": secret})
        } else {
            c.JSON(http.StatusOK, gin.H{"user": user, "secret": "NO SECRET :("})
        }
})

二、重定向路由

router := gin.Default()

router.GET("/", func(context *gin.Context) {
        context.Request.URL.Path = "/public"
        router.HandleContext(context)
})

// 或者重定向到外部连接
router.GET("/test", func(context *gin.Context) {
    context.Redirect(http.StatusMovedPermanently, "http://www.google.com/")
})

// 重定向POST请求
router.POST("/test", func(context *gin.Context) {
    context.Redirect(http.StatusFound, "/foo")
})

三、获取请求中的数据

1、获取URL路径

①获取单个或多个请求URL路径

router := gin.Default()

// 只会匹配“/user/john” 不会匹配 “/user/“ 或者 “/user“

router.GET("/user/:name", func(context *gin.Context) {
    name := context.Param("name")
    context.String(http.StatusOK, "Hello %s", name)
})

// However, this one will match /user/john/ and also /user/john/send
// If no other routers match /user/john, it will redirect to /user/john/
router.GET("/user/:name/*action", func(context *gin.Context) {
    name := context.Param("name")
    action := context.Param("action")
    message := name + " is " + action
    context.String(http.StatusOK, message)
})

// 对于每个匹配的请求,Context将保留路由定义
router.POST("/user/:name/*action", func(context *gin.Context) {
    context.FullPath() == "/user/:name/*action" // true
})

2、获取URL参数

①请求中的参数

/welcome?firstname=Jane&lastname=Doe

router := gin.Default()

router.GET("/welcome", func(context *gin.Context) {
    firstname := context.DefaultQuery("firstname", "默认值")
    lastname := context.Query("lastname") 
  // 也可以写成 context.Request.URL.Query().Get("lastname")
    context.String(http.StatusOK, "Hello %s %s", firstname, lastname)
})

②请求中的参数数组

/post?ids[a]=1234&ids[b]=hello

router := gin.Default()

router.GET("/welcome", func(context *gin.Context) {
    ids := context.QueryMap("ids")
    context.String(http.StatusOK, "Hello %s %s", firstname, lastname)
})

3、获取POST请求表单数据

①表单的多个数据

POST /post?id=1234&page=1 HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

name=manu&message=this_is_great
router := gin.Default()

router.POST("/post", func(context *gin.Context) {
        name := context.PostForm("name")
        message := context.PostForm("message")
        fmt.Printf("name: %s; message: %s", name, message)
})

②表单的数组数据:

POST /post?ids[a]=1234&ids[b]=hello HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

names[first]=thinkerou&names[second]=tianou
router := gin.Default()

router.POST("/post", func(context *gin.Context) {
    names := context.PostFormMap("names")
    fmt.Printf("names: %v", names)
})

四、文件上传

1、单个文件上传

router := gin.Default()
    // Set a lower memory limit for multipart forms (default is 32 MiB)
router.MaxMultipartMemory = 8 << 20  // 8 MiB
router.POST("/upload", func(context *gin.Context) {
    file, _ := context.FormFile("file")
    log.Println(file.Filename)
    // Upload the file to specific dst.
    context.SaveUploadedFile(file, dst)
    context.String(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf("'%s' uploaded!", file.Filename))
})
curl -X POST http://localhost:8080/upload \
  -F "file=@/Users/curiouser/test.txt" \
  -H "Content-Type: multipart/form-data"

2、多个文件上传

router := gin.Default()
// Set a lower memory limit for multipart forms (default is 32 MiB)
router.MaxMultipartMemory = 8 << 20  // 8 MiB
router.POST("/upload", func(context *gin.Context) {
    // Multipart form
    form, _ := context.MultipartForm()
    files := form.File["upload[]"]

    for _, file := range files {
        log.Println(file.Filename)

        // Upload the file to specific dst.
        context.SaveUploadedFile(file, dst)
    }
    context.String(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf("%d files uploaded!", len(files)))
})
curl -X POST http://localhost:8080/upload \
    -F "upload[]=@/Users/curiouser/test1.txt" \
    -F "upload[]=@/Users/curiouser/test2.txt" \
    -H "Content-Type: multipart/form-data"

五、绑定请求数据到结构体中

1、绑定请求路径到结构体中

GET /thinkerou/987fbc97-4bed-5078-9f07-9141ba07c9f3
GET /thinkerou/not-uuid
type Person struct {
    ID string `uri:"id" binding:"required,uuid"`
    Name string `uri:"name" binding:"required"`
}

route := gin.Default()
route.GET("/:name/:id", func(context *gin.Context) {
        var person Person
        if err := context.ShouldBindUri(&person); err != nil {
            context.JSON(400, gin.H{"msg": err})
            return
        }
})

2、绑定请求参数到结构体中

GET  /testing?name=curiouser&address=xyz&birthday=1993&createTime=123&unixTime=15622
type Person struct {
        Name       string    `form:"name"`
        Address    string    `form:"address"`
        Birthday   time.Time `form:"birthday" time_format:"2006-01-02" time_utc:"1"`
        CreateTime time.Time `form:"createTime" time_format:"unixNano"`
        UnixTime   time.Time `form:"unixTime" time_format:"unix"`
}

route := gin.Default()
route.GET("/testing",func(context *gin.Context) {
      var person Person
    if context.ShouldBind(&person) == nil {
          log.Println(person.Name)
          log.Println(person.Address)
          log.Println(person.Birthday)
          log.Println(person.CreateTime)
          log.Println(person.UnixTime)
    }
})

3、绑定请求Header到结构体中

curl -H "rate:300" -H "domain:music" 127.0.0.1:8080/test
type testHeader struct {
    Rate   int    `header:"Rate"`
    Domain string `header:"Domain"`
}

route := gin.Default()
route.GET("/test", func(context *gin.Context) {
        h := testHeader{}
        if err := context.ShouldBindHeader(&h); err != nil {
            context.JSON(200, err)
        }
})

4、绑定HTML复选框中的数据到结构体

<form action="/test" method="POST">
    <p>Check some colors</p>
    <label for="red">Red</label>
    <input type="checkbox" name="colors[]" value="red" id="red">
    <label for="green">Green</label>
    <input type="checkbox" name="colors[]" value="green" id="green">
    <label for="blue">Blue</label>
    <input type="checkbox" name="colors[]" value="blue" id="blue">
    <input type="submit">
</form>
type colorsForm struct {
    Colors []string `form:"colors[]"`
}

route := gin.Default()
route.GET("/test", func(context *gin.Context) {
        var foo colorsForm
    context.ShouldBind(&foo)
    context.JSON(200, gin.H{"color": foo.Colors})
})

5、绑定表单数据到结构体

curl -X POST -v --form name=user --form "avatar=@./avatar.png" http://localhost:8080/profile
type ProfileForm struct {
    Name   string                `form:"name" binding:"required"`
    Avatar *multipart.FileHeader `form:"avatar" binding:"required"`
    // or for multiple files
    // Avatars []*multipart.FileHeader `form:"avatar" binding:"required"`
}

router := gin.Default()
router.POST("/profile", func(context *gin.Context) {
    // you can bind multipart form with explicit binding declaration:
    // c.ShouldBindWith(&form, binding.Form)
    // or you can simply use autobinding with ShouldBind method:
    var form ProfileForm
    // in this case proper binding will be automatically selected
    if err := context.ShouldBind(&form); err != nil {
        context.String(http.StatusBadRequest, "bad request")
        return
    }
    err := context.SaveUploadedFile(form.Avatar, form.Avatar.Filename)
    if err != nil {
        context.String(http.StatusInternalServerError, "unknown error")
        return
    }
    // db.Save(&form)
    context.String(http.StatusOK, "ok")
})

六、使用中间件

1、全局设置中间件

router := gin.Default()

router.Use(gin.Logger())
router.Use(gin.Recovery())

2、单个路由设置中间件

router := gin.Defalut()

authorized := router.Group("/login")
authorized.Use(AuthRequired())
// 简短写法
// authorized = router.Group("/login",gin.BasicAuth(gin.Accounts{
//        "admin": "111",
// ))

// 或者
router.GET("/benchmark", MyBenchLogger(), benchEndpoint)

七、设置接口支持跨域

router.GET("/login",func(context *gin.Context) {
        context.Writer.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "*")
        context.Header("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "*") // 设置允许访问所有域
        context.Header("Access-Control-Allow-Methods", "POST, GET, OPTIONS, PUT, DELETE,UPDATE")
        context.Header("Access-Control-Allow-Headers", "Authorization, Content-Length, X-CSRF-Token, Token,session,X_Requested_With,Accept, Origin, Host, Connection, Accept-Encoding, Accept-Language,DNT, X-CustomHeader, Keep-Alive, User-Agent, X-Requested-With, If-Modified-Since, Cache-Control, Content-Type, Pragma,token,openid,opentoken")
        context.Header("Access-Control-Expose-Headers", "Content-Length, Access-Control-Allow-Origin, Access-Control-Allow-Headers,Cache-Control,Content-Language,Content-Type,Expires,Last-Modified,Pragma,FooBar")
        context.Header("Access-Control-Max-Age", "172800")
        context.Header("Access-Control-Allow-Credentials", "false")
        context.Set("content-type", "application/json")  //设置返回格式是json
}

参考:https://www.cnblogs.com/you-men/p/14054348.html

Copyright Curiouser all right reserved,powered by Gitbook该文件最后修改时间: 2021-02-22 13:31:33

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